The main goals of news writing can be summarized by the ABCs of journalism: Journalistic prose is explicit and precise and tries not to rely on jargon. As a rule, journalists will not use a long word when a short one will do.
They use subject-verb-object construction and vivid, active prose see Grammar. They offer anecdotes , examples and metaphors , and they rarely depend on generalizations or abstract ideas. News writers try to avoid using the same word more than once in a paragraph sometimes called an "echo" or "word mirror". The last story in the news broadcast; a "happy" story to end the show.
The headline also heading , head or title , or hed in journalism jargon  of a story is typically a complete sentence e. However, headlines sometimes omit the subject e. A subhead also sub-headline , subheading , subtitle or deck ; subhed or dek in journalism jargon can be either a subordinate title under the main headline, or the heading of a subsection of the article. It helps encapsulate the entire piece, or informs the reader of the topic of part of it.
Long or complex articles often have more than one subhead. Subheads are thus one type of entry point that help readers make choices, such as where to begin or continue reading. An article billboard is capsule summary text, often just one sentence or fragment, which is put into a sidebar or text box reminiscent of an outdoor billboard on the same page to grab the reader's attention as they are flipping through the pages to encourage them to stop and read that article.
When it consists of a sometimes compressed sample of the text of the article, it is known as a call-out or callout , and when it consists of a quotation e. Additional billboards of any of these types may appear later in the article especially on subsequent pages to entice further reading. Journalistic websites sometimes use animation techniques to swap one billboard for another e. Such billboards are also used as pointers to the article in other sections of the publication or site, or as advertisements for the piece in other publication or sites.
The most important structural element of a story is the lead also intro or lede in journalism jargon , including the story's first, or leading, sentence or two, which may or may not form its own paragraph. Charney states that "an effective lead is a 'brief, sharp statement of the story's essential facts. A lead must balance the ideal of maximum information conveyed with the constraint of the unreadability of a long sentence.
This makes writing a lead an optimization problem, in which the goal is to articulate the most encompassing and interesting statement that a writer can make in one sentence, given the material with which he or she has to work. While a rule of thumb says the lead should answer most or all of the five Ws , few leads can fit all of these. To " bury the lead " is to begin the article with background information or details of secondary importance to the readers,  forcing them to read more deeply into an article than they should have to in order to discover the essential point s.
Burying the lead is a characteristic of an academic writing style. Article leads are sometimes categorized into hard leads and soft leads. A hard lead aims to provide a comprehensive thesis which tells the reader what the article will cover. A soft lead introduces the topic in a more creative, attention-seeking fashion, and is usually followed by a nutshell paragraph or nut graf , a brief summary of facts. A nutshell paragraph also simply nutshell , or nut 'graph , nut graf , nutgraf , etc.
Nut-shell paragraphs are used particularly in feature stories see " Feature style " below. Paragraphs shortened as 'graphs , graphs , grafs or pars in journalistic jargon form the bulk of an article. Arabic usually refers to the language and literature: There is no simple definition of an Arab. At an international level, the 22 members of the Arab League can safely be described as Arab countries: At a human level, there are substantial groups within those countries — the Berbers of north Africa and the Kurds, for example — who do not regard themselves as Arabs.
Arabic names Though Arabic has only three vowels — a, i and u — it has several consonants that have no equivalent in the Roman alphabet. For instance, there are two kinds of s, d and t. There are also two glottal sounds. With no standard approach to transliteration agreed by the western media, we must try to balance consistency, comprehensibility and familiarity — which often puts a strain on all three.
Typically, Arabs have at least three names. Often Arabs also have familiar names that have no connection with the names on their identity cards: Where a particular spelling has become widely accepted through usage we should retain it. Where an individual with links to the west has clearly adopted a particular spelling of his or her own name, we should respect that. For breaking news and stories using names for which we have no established style, we take the lead given by Reuters wire copy.
Note also that names in some parts of the Arab world have become gallicised, while others have become anglicised, eg the leading Egyptian film director Youssef Chahine uses a French spelling instead of the English transliteration, Shaheen.
In names it is not capitalised, eg Ahmad al-Saqqaf, and can be dropped after the first mention Mr Saqqaf. For placenames we drop it altogether. Sometimes it appears as as- or ash- or ad- or ul-: But some Arabs, including Syrians and Egyptians, prefer to use el- in place of al-.
When they appear in the middle of a name they should be lower case and are used in combination with the following part of the name: This is more common among non-Arab Muslims. The spelling Mohammed or variants is considered archaic by most British Muslims, and disrespectful by many of them. European surnames of Arabic origin The guidelines above do not apply in examples such as the French labour minister, Myriam El Khomri. She is French born and only has one surname, which appears on her birth certificate and passport, written in the Latin alphabet; there is no other spelling.
The Belgian legal system and prosecutors refer to them by the surname El Bakraoui, and we should too. Aran sweaters, whether Irish or Scottish, come in lowercase with an initial cap A. An archetype is a perfect or typical specimen, an original model or pattern, or prototype.
A stereotype is based on simplistic generalisations about a particular group. If you're creating a style guide for, say, a cartoon show, then make it as fun, colourful and wacky as the series. If it's for an asset management company, make it as clean and straight-down-the-line as the company's thinking and brand equity is.
This shows the client you understand the brand or television property you've been working on. Plus, it'll instantly put that tone in the mind of the designer who's been given the style guide to use. Remember you are producing a guide — which, when applied successfully, will produce a common system of elements that work together, reinforce brand values and embrace successful interpretation of that guide.
A wagging finger approach will instantly put the person who uses the guide in school mode. In terms of tone, you'll catch more flies with honey than with vinegar: Look on a style guide as being similar to a cook book. It's full of brand recipes and ingredients that work well together, and create a successful blend of flavours and tastes. It should allow for experimentation, but clearly explain where too much of the wrong type of ingredient will spoil the brand broth.
Look around your workplace and you'll hopefully see colleagues who look presentable and are nicely dressed. Quite possibly a large percentage of these people do not have matching pants and socks or bras and knickers. You hopefully don't get to see them. Similarly, in your style guide, concentrate on the visible and the relevant.
Try not to deep dive into creating colour palettes that then have sub colour palettes and then further sub, sub colour palettes, which might never be used or seen. Ask yourself if every 'rule' you add to your design style guide is absolutely necessary. By giving too much information you might just end up confusing designers, or overwhelming them with so much information they can't possibly remember all of it.
Try to give out helpful and practical advice to the creative reading your guide. If you're using a particular type of overlapping text see the image above or a certain type of Photoshop treatment, then think about adding a page to your style guide that explains exactly how to do this.
Your style guide is an extension and expression of your creativity. It should have its own guidelines applied to it, and communicate the brand simply and effectively. There's no rule that says it has to be in PDF format although admittedly a lot are — you could have the whole thing online. Think creatively, but don't over complicate. Five clicks to a logo download are just annoying.
Work with a copywriter to energise and communicate the brand. This style guide will potentially be used client-side by the in-house creative team or sent out to other agencies to be applied in future work.
For your guide to be applied successfully, it's essential to communicate effectively in written form: Peculiarly, 'tone of voice' is sometimes forgotten in style guides. A tone of voice section includes a guide to copy tone, appropriate style and how messaging is communicated to an audience. It works hand-in-hand with the creative vision. If you think about a brand such as Virgin, its tone of voice is quite irreverent and perfectly matches the visuals.
• Follow the style guide on Twitter: eg constantly evolving newspaper, genetically modified food, hotly disputed penalty, wholly owned subsidiary. Our style for the prophet’s name and.
A style guide or style manual is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization or field. The implementation of a style guide provides uniformity in style and formatting within a document and across multiple documents.
STYLE GUIDANCE ON YOUR COMPUTER, TABLET AND PHONE AP Stylebook Online. This searchable, customizable, regularly updated version of AP Stylebook offers bonus features including Ask the Editor, Topical Guides and Pronunciation Guide. May 05, · APA Style Guide: Newspaper Article American Psychological Association rules for formatting papers, in-text citations, and end references. Examples based on the sixth edition of the Publication Manual from the farmacia24.gaon: Virginia Avenue, Fort Pierce, , FL.
News style, journalistic style, or news-writing style is the prose style used for news reporting in media such as newspapers, radio and television. The specific choices made by a news outlet's editor or editorial board are often collected in a style guide;. list but a guide that invites you to explore some of the complexities of modern English The BBC News Styleguide|Why does the BBC need a styleguide? | 7 Good writing is important to journalists,but it is must be good style.’.